Small wind turbines, although many types. However, its structure can be roughly divided into two parts. The mechanical part includes: a wind wheel, a transmission mechanism, a speed limit or speed regulation mechanism, a brake mechanism, a base rotating body tower, etc.; the electrical part includes: a generator, a power distribution box or a controller, a battery, an inverter, and the like. The functions of each part are as follows:
Wind Wheel The wind wheel is the energy conversion device of the wind turbine. Its function is to convert the wind into mechanical energy, and use the rotation of the wind wheel to drive the generator to generate electricity. The wind wheel is an important component of the wind turbine, and is mainly composed of three parts: the blade, the petiole and the wheel stage.
Transmission capacity A shifting mechanism between the rotor and the generator. Its role is to change the direction of the drive and shifting. For the 100-watt micro-miniature wind turbines, since the generators all use low-speed generators, the transmission is generally omitted, and the direct connection between the wind turbine and the generator is adopted.
Speed limit mechanism and speed control mechanism The working environment of the wind turbine is relatively harsh, which is greatly affected by natural wind conditions, and sometimes it is subject to sudden gusts or strong winds. In order to ensure safe and reliable operation of the wind turbine and to operate the wind turbine within a limited speed range, it is necessary to set up the necessary speed regulation and speed limit mechanism. Common speed governing mechanisms include centrifugal torque, wind wheel side deflection, nose tilt, pneumatic damping, wind wheel eccentricity, and counterweight tail.
Rotating body of the base The structure of the rotating body of the base is very simple, but it is one of the important components of the wind turbine. Its function is to support the entire head (wind wheel and generator, etc.) and make it freely rotate at the upper end of the tower.
The mechanism of the steering mechanism is to keep the wind turbine leaves in a vertical state with the incoming wind, so that the sail can obtain the maximum wind energy for maximum power output. The high-speed propeller wind turbine is divided into two types: upwind (also known as windward) and downwind (also known as leeward) according to the spatial position of the wind turbine and the incoming wind.
Towers are generally classified into suspension type, simple type and single rod type. Most of the small-scale wind turbines of the hundred-watt class use single-bar type.
Generator The generator is the work device for the entire wind power system. Its role is to convert the function into electrical energy. Commonly used generators are DC generators and silicon rectifier generators. The silicon rectifier generator has the distinction of permanent magnet and excitation. Compared with DC generators, silicon rectifier generators are characterized by small size, light weight, simple structure and good low-speed charging performance.
Power Distribution Box or Controller The power distribution box or controller is an integral part of a wind turbine that maintains normal external power. For the wind turbine, since the natural wind is large and small, the time is sometimes not available, and the generator cannot be directly supplied to the electric equipment, and must be used together with the battery to ensure the output voltage is stable. For batteries, overcharging or overdischarging will reduce their service life. Therefore, the power distribution box must have the necessary protection devices to ensure the normal use of the generator set.
Battery In the wind turbine, the battery is both an energy storage device and a stable output voltage. According to the difference of electrolytes, it can be divided into two types: acid storage and alkaline storage. Commonly used are lead-acid batteries, iron-nickel batteries, tin-nickel batteries.
Inverter Inverter is a device that converts direct current into alternating current. The output voltage of micro-miniature wind turbines is generally 12v, 24V, 36v, which can only be used for DC electrical appliances of corresponding voltage. At present, most household appliances such as TV sets, washing machines, refrigerators, and electric motors use 220V AC. Therefore, it is necessary to use an inverter to convert direct current into alternating current for use in home appliances.