Solar panel (solar module) production process

- Jan 18, 2019-

Photovoltaic power generation uses solar cells to convert solar energy directly into electrical energy based on the principle of photovoltaic effect. In theory, photovoltaic power generation technology can be used in any occasion where power is required, from spacecraft to household power supplies, to megawatt power stations, to toys, and photovoltaic power sources everywhere. The most basic components of solar photovoltaic power generation are solar cells, such as monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, and the like. Common: Amorphous silicon, such as a calculator, mono crystalline silicon is a high-performance film that we are doing now. Ordinary film, poly silicon and ordinary film have the same shape, but the color can be distinguished, light blue.


Solar panel production process


The component line is also called the package line. The package is a key step in the production of solar cells. Without a good packaging process, a good battery can not produce a good component board. The battery package not only ensures the battery life, but also enhances the battery's impact strength. The high quality and longevity of the product is the key to winning customer satisfaction, so the package quality of the component board is very important.




1, cells testing - 2, front welding - inspection - 3, back series - inspection - 4, laying (glass cleaning, material cutting, glass pretreatment, laying) - 5, lamination - 6, deburring ( To the side, cleaning) - 7, frame (gluing, cornering, punching, frame, scrub glue) - 8, welding junction box - 9, high voltage test - 10, component test - appearance Inspection - 11, packaging and storage


How to ensure efficient and long life of solar modules:


1. High conversion efficiency, high quality battery chips;


2. High-quality raw materials, such as: high cross-linking EVA, high bond strength encapsulant (neutral silicone resin adhesive), high transmittance and high strength tempered glass;


3. Reasonable packaging process


4. The rigorous work style of the staff;


Because solar cells are high-tech products, some details in the production process, some inconspicuous problems such as wearing gloves without wearing, should be evenly painted reagents and scribbling things are all important enemies that affect product quality, so in addition to making reasonable In addition to the production process, the seriousness and rigor of the employees is very important.


Solar cell assembly process introduction:


Process Description: Here is a brief introduction to the role of the process, giving everyone a perceptual understanding.


1. Cells test: Due to the randomness of the production conditions of the cells, the performance of the produced battery is not the same. Therefore, in order to effectively combine the cells with the same performance or similar performance, the cell should be classified according to its performance parameters; The cell is sorted by testing the output parameters (current and voltage) of the cell. In order to improve the utilization rate of the cell, a qualified cell assembly is produced.


2, front welding: is to weld the busbar to the main grid line of the front (negative) of the battery, the busbar is tinned copper strip, we use the welding machine to weld the strip in the form of multiple points on the main grid on-line. The heat source for welding is an infrared lamp (using the thermal effect of infrared rays). The length of the ribbon is approximately twice the length of the side of the battery. The extra solder ribbon is attached to the back electrode of the back cell when soldered on the back side


3, back series: back welding is a series of 36 batteries connected together to form a component string, the current process we use is manual, the battery is mainly positioned by a membrane board, there are 36 concave cells placed on the top The slot, the size of the slot corresponds to the size of the battery, the position of the slot has been designed, the different specifications of the components use different templates, the operator uses the soldering iron and solder wire to solder the front electrode (negative) of the "front battery" to " On the back electrode (positive electrode) of the rear battery, 36 pieces are sequentially connected in series and the leads are soldered to the positive and negative electrodes of the component string.


4. Laminated laying: After the back side is connected in series and passed the inspection, the component string, glass and cut EVA, glass fiber and back sheet are laid at a certain level and ready for lamination. The glass is pre-coated with a primer to increase the bonding strength between the glass and the EVA. When laying, ensure the relative position of the battery string and glass and other materials, adjust the distance between the batteries, and lay a good foundation for lamination. (Laying level: from bottom to top: glass, EVA, battery, EVA, fiberglass, backboard).


5. Component lamination: The laid battery is placed in a laminating machine, the air in the assembly is drawn out by vacuuming, and then heated to fuse the EVA to bond the battery, the glass and the back sheet together; finally, the assembly is cooled and taken out. The lamination process is a key step in the production of components, and the lamination temperature lamination time is determined by the nature of the EVA. When we use fast curing EVA, the lamination cycle time is about 25 minutes. The curing temperature was 150 °C.


6. Trimming: When the EVA is melted after lamination, it will be extended outward to form a burr due to the pressure, so it should be cut off after lamination.


7. Binding: similar to attaching a frame to the glass; attaching the aluminum frame to the glass component, increasing the strength of the component, further sealing the battery component, and prolonging the service life of the battery. The gap between the bezel and the glass assembly is filled with silicone resin. Each frame is connected by a corner key.


8. Solder junction box: Solder a box at the back of the assembly to facilitate connection between the battery and other equipment or batteries.


9. High-voltage test: High-voltage test refers to applying a certain voltage between the frame of the component and the electrode lead to test the pressure resistance and dielectric strength of the component to ensure that the component is not damaged under harsh natural conditions (lightning strikes, etc.).


10. Component testing: The purpose of the test is to calibrate the output power of the battery, test its output characteristics, and determine the quality level of the component.


Solar array design steps


1. Calculate the load 24h of the load.




V——load rated power supply


2. Select the daily sunshine hours T(H).


3. Calculate the operating current of the solar array.




Q——According to the surplus factor in the rainy season, Q=0.21~1.00


4. Determine the battery float voltage VF.


The floating charge voltages of the cadmium nickel (GN) and lead acid (CS) batteries are 1.4 to 1.6 V and 2.2 V, respectively.


5. Solar cell temperature compensation voltage VT.




6. Calculate the solar cell array operating voltage VP.




Where VD=0.5~0.7


Approximately equal to VF


7. Solar cell array output power WP flat panel solar panel.




8. According to VP, WP in the silicon battery panel combination series table, determine the number of series blocks and parallel groups of standard specifications.